Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Genetics - Essay Example ed by the combination of these chromosomes; and males have a combination of 46, XY chromosomes, while females have a combination of 46, XX chromosomes. These chromosomes consist of strands of genetic information, which are termed the DNA. Genes are parts of the DNA, and their location is known as the locus. Genes produce protein in human bodies through the information present in them. An autosomal chromosome from the mother and the father, constitute a pair of chromosomes that carry information that is by and large the same (Genetics). The genes in different persons will be almost similar, with slight variations. In the DNA, these variations, which transpire in less than 1% of the DNA sequence, produce alleles. The abnormality of a gene results in abnormal protein, or an abnormal quantity of a normal protein. The pairs of autosomal chromosomes contain a gene from the mother and a gene from the father. If both these genes are healthy, then the pair is termed a healthy pair. If one of the genes is defective, and if the other gene produces extra amounts of proteins to prevent disease; then the disease is termed as recessive. Moreover, the gene is deemed to have been inherited in a recessive manner (Genetics). In some cases, just one gene will be responsible for causing a disease. This is described as a dominant hereditary disorder. In such disorders, if one abnormal gene is inherited from a parent, then the child is likely to develop the disease. An individual with one abnormal gene is termed as heterozygous for that gene. Children, who receive an abnormal recessive disease gene from both the parents, develop the disease; and are rendered homozygous for that gene. If both the parents have a copy of a recessive disease gene, then each of their children, has a one in four, risk of developing that disease. If one of the parents has two copies of the recessive disease gene and the other parent has one copy, then each of their children, has a 50% chance of being
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Otitis media, analyeses and evaluation the care delivered to a patient with otitis media - Essay Example Currently, decision-making processes have to be approved by the patient due to the consequences that may arise during treatments. As for otitis, the decisions have to be controlled by the doctor due to the various determinants. Additionally, the doctors use the factors to assist the patients on the decisions they can make on their treatment. Notably, previous research has simplified decision-making processes by having connection between symptoms and specific treatment methods that can be applied. Acute otitis media (AOM) Ã¢â¬â it is caused by blockages in the Eustachian tube due to poor drainage and ventilation of the inner and middle ear cavity (Rosenfeld 102). It does not take long, and its symptoms are short-term. The symptoms include increased temperature, nausea, ear ache and irritability among others. However, they may vary based on age body resistance. Chronic otitis media Ã¢â¬â it involves the entry of bacteria into the middle ear leading to infections (Bluestone and Jerome 103). The excreted fluid may cause conductive hearing loss and takes place after a period of more than three months. It is also referred to as the glue ear. Chronic suppurative otitis media Ã¢â¬â it is also referred to as the runny ear due to the presence of an opening in the eardrum. There is consistent discharge of fluids that may affect the inner bones (Bluestone and Jerome 5). This stage may lead to permanent hearing loss if treatment is not administered. Age is a factor affecting the choice of diagnostic approaches (Block and Christopher 56). Otitis media is commonly found in children below the ages of ten (Bluestone and Jerome 4). Moreover, the approach styles in children are different from those in adults. For example, an adult can explain in detailed the symptoms that he/she is undergoing; hence making it easy for the decision-making process. Children will have different diagnosis styles whereby the doctor will have to carry out tests and
Monday, January 27, 2020
Challenges faced by Colgate-Palmolive Company Nowadays business is like a war that has every things seem fair, but as a human being we need to kept in mind that all the ethical and moral issues that pertain to all the stake holders. Issues and problems are the ingredient of every business and life, but the only successful business man are the true fighter of all internal and external forces those create obstacle / hindrance in the success ladder. This report contain all the aspect of challenges faced by the contemporary business man in running his / her business, and all those issues that he / she has to face in his / her daily routine. This report contain four part in the first part we have discussed the portfolio of the business, secondly PEST analysis, third we discussed the current issues of business and in the last we have conclude all the above stated issue and formerly recommendation. COMPANY BACKGROUND INFORMATION Colgate-Palmolive Company (NYSE: CL) This is an American corporation that has the focused on the distribution, production, personal products, provision of household and health care such as detergents, soaps, toothpaste and toothbrushes (oral hygiene products). History William Colgate, a candle and soap maker opened up a starch, soap, and candle factory located on Dutch Street with the name of William Colgate Company in New York City in 1806. The firm in the initial years began to sell individual bars but later on in 1857, after the death of William the company started reorganized as Colgate Company operated by his son. In the starting of the year 1872, company introduced a perfumed soap with name of Cashmere Bouquet. Colgate sold the first toothpaste in 1896 with the brand name of Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream but after the success of this brand, company started mass selling in 1908 (Wikipedia 2010). Colgate people have built a reputation as a successful company that has the highest ethical standards. Through living the values of Global Teamwork, Caring, Continuous Improvement, and adhering to the principles of honor, integrity and concern for the environment, as the company seeks to: Provide quality products of value to customers Opportunities for professional growth to all company people Fulfill CSR as a member of the international community Increase shareholder value (Wikipedia 2010) Factors affecting the Business: Government Factors: Government does not have much influence on the FMCG industry in terms of regulations. There are consumer protection laws but they are not implemented as they should be. There are not much regulations involved in this industry (Krutz 2004). (P)olitical factors: Political factors are influencing this industry because the recent and order conditions have affected the whole economy which in turn affected the industry. Many of the factories of the big companies were burnt after the assassination of Benazir (Krutz 2004). (E)conomic factors: The overall economy of the country is showing a stable growth. Therefore this industry is also showing a growth of 10%. But the inflation is growing rapidly which is not a good sign for the new entrants. Change in the interest rate also affects the industry. Hence the new entrants are also threatened by the increasing interest rates (Wikipedia 2010). (S)ocial trends: The social trends are in favor of this industry. Mass awareness is created through media. So people are shifting from their traditional methods of washing clothes, skin care etc to the modern methods. This is a good sign for the new entrants. People have become more educated and health conscious. High population growth is another opportunity for the new entrants (Muravchik 2004). (T)echnological change: The technology can support this industry well. If the whole system can be automated from the import of raw material to the finished goods then it would save time and money. This is a good sign for the new entrants. But in this industry technology does not play a major role because the traditional formulae of soap or toothpaste are not that much complicated (Louviere 2001). Colgate-Palmolives Mission Statement Company mission statement focusing on the following factors Caring Every Company has claims cares about people but the Colgate Company has original care for its business partners, people, shareholders and customers. Colgate is dedicated to act with empathy, integrity and candor in all circumstances, to pay attention to customer according to the value differences and others. Similarly the Company is committed to defend the universal environment and to augment the communities where Colgate people are alive and work (Wikipedia 2010). Global Teamwork All Colgate employees are part of a worldwide squad, devoted to working together across countries and all through the world. Only by allocation ideas, technologies and talents can the Company accomplish and maintain profitable growth. Continuous Improvement Colgate is dedicated to getting improved every day in all it does, as persons and as teams. By better sympathetic consumers potential and incessantly working to improve and innovation in services, processes and products Colgate can be the best. (Wikipedia 2010) INTRODUCTION Every management has to face difficulties in every step of business development and Effective management is the main ingredients for the establishment / growth and success of the business. The success of the management is to examine the marketplace, background and create employment. In order to make profit opportunities that give the financial viability and potential growth for the business. Beside that the importance of management is usually misunderstood and wrongly interprets because people are giving more focus on the result somewhat than the course of management (Laroche, Michel,ÃâÃ Zhou and Kim 1996). Concurrently with the increase in demand about quality, business man attracted the attention of customers. A sudden wave of successful entrepreneurs looks as if to render earlier management concepts obsolete while ignoring the marketing / organizing talents of the success full business man / entrepreneur (Griffin and Pustay 2009). Planning is critical for developing a firms potential. This view tended to short term enhances profits, however created along term dysfunctional business environment. However, many small businesses do not distinguish the need for long-term plans, for the reason that the miniature no of people concerned in working the business involves equal conscientiousness in the decision making and planning processes (Gauzente and Ranchhod 2002). Critical issue/problem for today business: Every new day bring the challenge for any business person, because to stay alive in the market you need to fight efficiently and smartly, as the world moving; complexity in every aspect of life is increase though technology has improved along but as much we belong to technology we get more depended. Following are the hot buttons for today business, and every business men more or less facing and struggling Political instability and involvement: Every government is eager to impose taxes to earn more and more profit, due to recent shock of recession most of the industries are move toward bankruptcy or liquidate just because of high taxes and less benefit given by the government. It is common these day small business or large organization owners to be unaware of current legal issues that can hit them because continuous changes in the business policies and implication by the governments put them in trouble. The problem is that legal trouble can cost them. It can even cost you your business. After 9/11 money laundering and other compliance issues are more dealt in the organization standard operating procedure (Wikipedia 2010) Poverty and inequality of income: Due to high inflation and high unemployment rate continuously hitting the poverty level to increase, and that all because of inequality of income, contrary as the inflation increase the cost of business will also increase that thing put the pressure on the business man to reduce the prices because consumer start searching for alternative. In Pakistan micro finance is getting importance as an effective tool for social mobilization poverty alleviation. Currently in Pakistan, a variety of institution including micro finance banks Others ranging from NGOs to private Government sponsored ruler support programs are delivering services to the poor, who dont have access to or neglected by the commercial banks. Micro finance aims at empowering individuals to earn a reasonable income through micro credits. Micro finance caters the needs of borrowers and usually focuses on the segment of the population whose economic status falls below poverty level (Krutz 2004) Ethical issues in business: Ethics and moral compulsion are something that we all come across at one time or another. All persons have to act in a way that would support the society in a proficient setting. In every business there are own policy of individuals and ethics within the particular business have adhere the compliance of the code conduct most of the organization investing lot of resource in order to maintain the ethic and code of conduct within the organization, even though regulatory bodies also penalized the organization if in case of non compliance (Krutz 2004) Constantly Changing Economic Environment: Dynamic economic environment is a night mare for the Contemporary business, because already exist giant in the market is a serious threat for them, because most of them have made cartel and create obstacle for the new business men to enter in the market or survival. Economical changes like inflation , Balance of payment, unemployment and poverty is also hindrance for the growth of business, for the fighting against all these indicators, entrepreneur need specific skill and knowledge, because without that he / she cannot be able to run the business smoothly (Griffin and Pustay 2009) Risk Management: Every organization is vulnerable of low chances events that could have a potentially appalling effect. Every single step has creating question for the organization success, and organization has to fight not only with external factor but has to manage the internal factor of the organization. All around us we find some people / object / substances that are working against the organization and the entire factor is consist of those indicators that need to be monitored. Theft of property Breach of laws Computer crimes Fraud Weather related damage In order to determine the variance between the expected and achieving results company has to determine the specific road map and checklist of the indicator which plays are major role in the indicator (Cateora and Graham 2007). Developing and Mentoring Employees: Managing the employees / labor is the critical issue for the business men in these days because as the dynamic environment is coming around, for competing with that we need to keep our staff in the phase of learning, and continuous training is required to make them up to date.. The actual problem comes when the employee / labor are unwilling to change and create hindrance in the way, so fighting with this problem is the main issue for the entrepreneurs. Negotiating and Managing Critical Relationships with stake holders: Developing / maintaining the relationship with all the stake holders is the important thing for the entrepreneurs because each and every one has its own importance, and without making good relation with them survival is difficult, for all the building relationship entrepreneurs need to have the negotiation and communication skills (Wikipedia 2010). Every day we have noticed that lots of entrepreneurs were lost their businesses just because they are lack with these skills and for understanding the critical relation with the stakeholders we must need to understand the importance, if we neglect the customers, so we lose business, if we neglect the good supplier so we lose the quality, if we neglect the distributor so we lose the perfection is services, and finally if we neglect the Government so we have to ready for the sanctions and implication / charges / penalties. Managing global operation: While organizations turn into global they frequently end up paying a intense price in requisites of managing complex challenges and issues. Host Country Norms and Customs. Workforce management Host country languages Unfamiliar laws and regulations. Unexpected Cost mix. Globalization has exaggerated most of business tremendously. Multinational Corporations are functioning and operating in almost every part of the world. It is significant to expend time in considerate how globalization formulates it pertinent and necessary for a MNC to scatter and spread its capacity and meaning of Operation. It would be correct if attempt to know the philosophy of Multinational Companies are not operating in any certain regions or countries. Similarly, the western worlds describe these shortcomings of Globalization, if a business decides to close up its business and depart from a host company. The general disadvantages which direct to a Multi National Company forgoing globalization include (Gauzente and Ranchhod 2002). Proprietary Technology to host countries. Poor Employee skills. Political risks. Customer response time is slow. Effective communication Common reasons why organization Fail: We can identify certain familiar reasons why Organizations fail to achieve a competitive advantage and end up losing out to their competitors. These reasons are universal in nature and find the same footing in Pakistan as well as any other place in the world. http://smallbiztrends.com/category/current-issues Too much emphasis on short-term financial performance. Quite often, cost cutting, profit maximizing at the cost of social responsibility or employee motivation is a failed strategy pursued by organizations, which just hastens their status to oblivion. Failing to take advantage of strengths and opportunities. This is in reality failing to hold on to proven successful strategies or core competencies. Sometimes a change in leadership leads to change in strategy, where just for the sake of glory and high profits, organizations forget their core competence and opt for strategies and tactic which cause their downfall. Failing to recognize competitive threats. This reason is the exact opposite of failure to make use of the organizations strengths. Quite often organizations decide to pursue status quo and ends up bringing no new product or service or even no innovation in its existing product or service line leading to lack of customer satisfaction, decline in profits and finally being declared a failure. Neglecting operations strategy. This is definitely the most important reason of failure; organizations often end up employing non productive techniques which lead to inconsistent and failed operations. Too much emphasis in product and service design and not enough on improvement. Differentiation in terms of service and product, American companies in 1980s did that they never introduced incremental refinements rather went for big changes and thus lost to Japanese competitors. Neglecting investments in capital and human resources: A total disregard to use the best resource. Capital and human resources in the long run make or break an organization. Conclusion: Successful management is founded on the mastery of a multitude of details and the success of the business is depended on the efficient management from the available resources and decision making for best purpose. While management teach the significance of focusing attention on main issues affect the business, managers realize the main issues are the variety form the business. The small mistake to the business is unrecoverable bankruptcy, in a progressively more controlled society, inattentiveness to one slight detail cans consequence in considerable commotion of the business. Above mentioned problems is not the only problem faced by the entereprenurers but also every day they faced some sort of problem and hazard in conducting operations and meeting the standards, internal and external players of the market are the main indicator that need to be monitored and effectively organized.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Have you ever wondered, why people do and enjoy bad habits and they know its bad for them? there are danger, damages and effects that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about bad habits. according to www. wikihow. com, some habits can have serious consequences for our health, such as dangerous deadly heart attacks. and I think that people who have bad habits should realize that they are making fun of death itself. Can you imagine your self lonely, anti-social and unlovable? well, for your infoÃ¢â¬â¢s, bad habits can cause all of these issues,because a lot of bad habits make you anti-social, also some of them lead to early death, yes early death. beside, do you think that bad habits can make you happy more than sad? i bet you donÃ¢â¬â¢t, and i know that changing bad habits is really really hard, and i know how much it take to change them, but being surrounded with friends and family is much better than bad health and loneliness! i know a story about a kid who lost everything, Kareem was a conceited kid, his parents gave him a lot of money and love thinking that he is a good kid, he met bad friends who have bad habits, they taught him how to drink and get drugs, by the days, his parents noticed that he come late to home, and the school too, and he started to say bad words, then, they found out that he was taking drugs, they took him to the hospital, and they healed him, but when he got out, he was trying to find a source of money, because his parents no longer giving him money like before, so he went to his loving grandmother, and he killed her for money, what a poor grandmother, after days, the police found him, and took him to the jail, and this kid learned his lesson, that bad friends wont help him if he got in troubles, and bad habits cant make him happy. Being healthy, happy and having a perfect life is so easy, and i will tell you how. healthy habits can change your life, in addition to that, healthy habits can make you have a fit perfect body, and it can improve your IQ level, improve your skin health, improve your mood and protect you from diseases like heart diseases. First step is learning, learn what are the healthy habits we need everyday, like drinking 8 cups of water everyday, because we lose 4 liters of water by sweating etc. the second step, stick them into your daily routine, if you did, it will no longer be hard for you, final step, see the result, and live a healthy better life. well, i realize that these steps may seem easy, but they are not like what you think they are, some people said that having healthy habits is hard, its hard for us people to change our routine. some people couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do that because they love their bad habits, they love their daily chips, they love their laziness in front of the T. V, but let me tell you something, they think with the short period thinking brain,their brain say to them ( its okay, its just a little piece of pizza, its just a coke, its just a blah blah blah) but, its not just like that, no, they become fatter and fatter and fatter and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize it until their health become bad, and thats why we should try to have healthy habits. UAE these days is trying to be the best country compared with other countries. donÃ¢â¬â¢t we want to see our country name in every wear? donÃ¢â¬â¢t we? so lets start with our self. i get really mad and angry for seeing my brothers and sisters in UAE have bad health, and deeply in my heart, i pray for them, as me, i want everyone in UAE to have healthy habits, because i understand that happiness come from healthy lifestyle, and with healthy lifestyle, we become stronger, and we have a clear mind, and that all lead to much more productive society, and the results will show up in our country, and itÃ¢â¬â¢ll raise more and more, and our country UAE will be the best of all. Bad habits are bad friends, we have fun with them, then when we get in troubles, they walk away. people should know that their happiness is the payment for their wasted health, and there is nothing more that worth than health. lets all work together, and start from today, lets change our bad habits to healthy, and lets protect our families and loved once from these serious consequences!
Friday, January 10, 2020
By all standards, Mao Zedong belongs in the company of the few great political men of our century. Born and raised in the obscurity and restrictions of nineteenth-century rural China, he rose to assume the leadership of the Chinese Revolution, rule the largest population in the world with the most pervasive and intense government known in history, and finally has clung to life long enough to become the last of the political heroes of the great generation of World War II. His life spans the emergence of modern China and his character has shaped the manner and style of the Chinese Revolution.His name has become the label for revolutionary extremists throughout the world, Ã¢â¬Å"the Maoists,Ã¢â¬ yet it is Mao Zedong with whom leaders throughout the world seek audiences. The Pope in one day admits to his presence more people than Mao Zedong grants audiences in a year. When Mao last appeared publicly, more than a million people expressed tumultuous joy, and since then the occasions for allowing a select few into his presence have been newsworthy throughout the world.The announcement that the American Secretary of State has had a couple of hours of discussion with the Chairman is a signal to all that the Secretary has been favored, indeed, honored; and, of course, when a trip to China does not include a visit with the Chairman, the universal interpretation is that favor is being withheld.The extraordinary appeal of Mao Zedong is hard to identify. Some may suggest that it lies less in the man and more in the nature of Chinese society, for the Chinese do seem compelled to make all of their leaders into imperial figures. Yet, the fact remains that many non-Chinese, who have no affinity for his rural origins but represent a host of varied social and personal backgrounds, seem to find inspiration for their political lives in his words and his example. Restless youth scattered throughout the world who have more formal education than he had feel that in his revolutionary ardor and purity he speaks for them.What is the character of the man that lies behind all this greatness? Merely to raise the question is an act of sacrilege for many. For the Chinese and other worshippers of Mao and his thoughts, it is enough to dwell on his public virtues, read only hagiographies, and reject all else as being in bad taste. For his detractors, the whole spectacle is revolting, and Mao the man must be the devil behind the Chinese version of socialist totalitarianism. Yet between these extremes there are those who are honestly curious.The public record reveals a man at home in rural China, a man of the peasantry, who knows the myths and folklore of traditional China. Yet, although he received a Confucian education, Mao was also part of the first full generation of Chinese to explore Western knowledge. From his rural isolation, he moved effectively into the chaotic, competitive world of Chinese student politics and revolutionary scheming. As soldier, ideologist, and planner, he became the symbolic leader of the Chinese Communist guerrilla struggle. As victorious ruler he was a visionary who looked beyond immediate problems of administration to the goals of a new society and to the molding of a new form of man.The paradox of Mao Zedong is that while his claim to greatness is unassailable, in every specific sphere whether as philosopher, strategist, economic planner, ideologue or even world statesman, his qualities are not the match of his right to greatness. Since Mao's greatness lies so clearly in the realm of emotions, the problem of Mao Zedong is a problem in political psychology. To treat Mao merely as an intellectual or as a calculating strategist is to miss the essential dimensions of his historic role. Furthermore, if we are to understand how Mao came to be so successful in mobilizing the feelings of the Chinese, and of others, we must explore his own emotional world and discover the dynamics of his psychic relations with others.As an ind ividual, Mao is intrinsically fascinating. His acts and his words are startling and unexpected. In his conversations he will bring up the most unlikely subjects: Why are some Africans more dark-skinned than others? Have not all the advances in medical science only increased the number of diseases? The Chinese people have always known Marxism because they have always appreciated contradictions.A dedicated materialist, Mao can suddenly speak as a conventional believer in the hereafter: Ã¢â¬Å"I shall soon be seeing GodÃ¢â¬ (Cheek 124). Ã¢â¬Å"When we see God, or rather Karl Marx, we will have to explain muchÃ¢â¬ (Cheek 115). Ã At times he has depicted himself as an outstanding hero of Chinese history: Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, we are greater than Ch'in Shih Huang-tiÃ¢â¬ (Cheek 79). Ã¢â¬Å"We must look to the present to find our heroesÃ¢â¬ (Cheek 80).Intrinsic fascination aside, Mao's character demands serious analysis because there is much in the history of modern China that cannot be explained except in terms of Mao Zedong's personality. In the fluid circumstances of the Chinese Revolution, time and again events and processes took on decisive form in direct response to the personality of Mao Zedong. In stable societies with solid institutions the scope for the influence of personality considerations is constrained to the narrow limits of how different individuals may perform established roles. In the case of Mao Zedong there was no defined role for him to fill; rather his own personality created his own roles and thereby shaped Chinese history.When the story of modern China is systematically related to the activities of Mao, a key element of Mao's genius is immediately highlighted: his remarkable capacity to perform different, and even quite contradictory, roles at different times. As Mao took on the roles of peasant organizer, military commander, ideological spokesman, political strategist, and ruling statesman, he also vacillated between such contradictory pu blic persona as fiery revolutionary and wise philosopher; dynamic activist and isolated recluse; preacher of the sovereign powers of the human will and patient planner who knows that history cannot be rushed.In a very strange manner Mao Zedong has been able to communicate a sense of the integrity of the human spirit precisely because he has defied logic and spoken for exactly opposite points of view. He has praised books (indeed sanctified the presumed magic of his own Ã¢â¬Å"Little Red BookÃ¢â¬ ) and he has denounced bookish knowledgeÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"Reading books only makes myopic childrenÃ¢â¬ (Cheek 117). He has equally extolled and denounced violence. He has championed reason and also scorned the paralyzing impulses of reasonableness. His intellectual integrity is as unassailable as folk wisdom, with its appropriate sayings for every option.Mao's revolutionary ideas, like those of his intellectual compatriots elsewhere, drew inspiration from both experience (observing and doi ng) and intellectual exercise. They were a response to the genuine plight of large numbers of poor, illiterate, and exploited people, although they were also the result of profound romanticization and sometimes willful ignorance of who and what the people really were.They reflected a strong inclination to distrust complex patterns of administration and governance Ã¢â¬â in a word, bureaucracy-because these only served the interests of ruling elites; and they relied upon popular enthusiasm and passion as substitutes for technical expertise and intellectual sophistication, and too frequently as a means for mobilizing (and manipulating) the masses. Moreover, they displayed an inconsistency born of a human inability to divorce oneself completely from one's cultural environment, with its heavy baggage of traditions, habits, and customs. Thus, rebellion against the decrepit and defeatist past of China was accompanied by appeals Ã¢â¬â sometimes disguised, sometimes not Ã¢â¬â to the social virtues, modes of discourse, and general spirit of that same past.If from a classical Marxist standpoint Lenin was wrong to represent Russia as an appropriate site for a Marxist revolution, Mao erred in proclaiming the same for China despite his disingenuous contention in 1942 that Ã¢â¬Å"Marxism-Leninism has no beauty, no mystical value; it is simply very usefulÃ¢â¬ (Cheek 127). Much evidence existed, of course, to sustain an argument that China needed fundamental changes in its economic, social, and political order.Chinese had been debating this for many decades. It was also clear that foreign powers had an enormous impact on China's development, fostering it in some ways, but distorting and exploiting it in others. Mao's writings reveal that he understood quite well that his country's vulnerability to external aggression resulted largely from internal weaknesses, and that this relationship lay at the heart of his analysis and his demand for revolution.The doctrine of t he mass line did not develop in isolation but reflected what was arguably the most fundamental of Mao's attitudes: voluntarism. Like Lenin, whose successes must have been instrumental in showing Mao the value of seizing the moment, Mao was a committed voluntarist Ã¢â¬â a believer in the ability of human will to overcome virtually any obstacle, despite the essential irrelevancy of human motivation to Marx's revolutionary theory.By seeking to foster revolution in places unsuitable theoretically for such a process, both Lenin and Mao had to relinquish Marxist principle and emphatic determinism (the revolution will follow under the right, organically evolved, socioeconomic conditions) in favor of willful action (the revolution will occur under whatever conditions we can take advantage of). For the sake of possibly seeing the revolution transpire in their own lifetimes, they had to impose their own wills on circumstances and equate volition with accomplishment. Marxism's attraction wa s, thus, also its weakness.The theory was supposed to ensure that revolution would occur, but it never promised that it would occur to suit the timetables of revolutionaries. For tremendously egotistical men like Lenin and Mao, Marxist determinism had to be balanced by a voluntarist spirit, men and women had to help make the revolution by whatever means they could be sold on, and time had to be made an ally and not an enemy.The succession to Mao Zedong will in time Ã worked out, and China has new leaders. Regardless of whatever private feelings they may have about Mao, they acknowledged his greatness in the making of modern China. As all great men in history he will be honored, especially by those who will seek the magic of his greatness to insure the legitimacy of their authority.Thus it is likely that as time goes by the public Mao became increasingly shrouded in myth, and it Ã became even more difficult to penetrate to the domain of the private man where must lie the secrets of his greatness. Just possibly, however, history may take a slightly different turn, and, as unlikely as it may seem now, there may be revelations of more facts about the life of Mao Zedong making it possible to evaluate better our interpretation of his greatness.Mao Zedong's place in Chinese history is, however, secure, and his successors, whoever they may be, will be of quite different character. Mao's belonged to the era of China's response to the modern world: He wanted China to change, to become strong and powerful in the eyes of all the world; yet he also wanted China to be true to itself. He was a leader out of rural China, educated in a provincial setting, and unacquainted with any foreign language. His distrust of cities refiected in part that be was not at home with the more cosmopolitan generation of Chinese who went further in exploring foreign ways than he was ever ready to do.Works CitedCheek, Timothy. Mao Zedong and ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Revolutions: A Brief History with Do cuments. Boston: Bedfort, 2002.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4211 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Domestic Violence on Children Dissertation The Nature of Domestic Violence Domestic violence has been defined as: a continuum of behaviour ranging from verbal abuse, physical, and sexual assault, to rape and even homicide. The vast majority of such violence, and the most severe and chronic incidents, are perpetrated by men against women and their children. (Department of Health [DoH] 2000) In most cases the violence is against women by their partners or spouse and affects children belonging to one or both of them. Children can become victims of domestic violence either through being directly targeted or witnessing scenes of domestic violence between parents and their partners. At least 750,000 children a year witness violence within the home, and nearly three quarters of children on child protection registers live in households where domestic violence occurs. (Dept. of Health, 2003). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Domestic Violence On Children | Criminology Dissertations" essay for you Create order Abuse and violence may be physical, emotional, psychological, financial or sexual, and may be constant or spasmodic. Yet domestic violence is experienced by individuals from every class, race, religion and culture the world over (British Medical Association [BMA] 1999). While severe cases of domestic violence can often lead to women being hospitalised, others remain undetectable to the public eye, leaving women who live in constant fear of their partner or spouse, trying to avoid degradation. A study by Mayhew found that psychological and emotional abuse might be constant whilst the physical violence is intermittent (Mayhew et al 1996). For the child or young person this becomes a way of life one without stability or security and this can lead to behavioural problems and even crime. The focus of this dissertation is on the impact of domestic violence on the lives of children and young people. Research took place in the Hammersmith and Fulham area of London. The main body of research is secondary, from journals, books, and internet sources. The primary research is in the form of 2 sets of questionnaires handed out to 40people. The first questionnaire uses a design based on a survey done by Doctors from the University of Arizona, which has already proven tube successful and reliable. The questionnaire consists of four questions: 1. Have you ever been in a relationship with someone who has hit you, kicked you, slapped you, punched you, or threatened to hurt you? 2. CURRENTLY? 3. When you were pregnant did anyone ever physically hurt you? 4. Are you in a relationship with someone who yells at you, calls you names, or puts you down? (Wahl et al 2004: 25). The questionnaire was carried out on a random sample of the public. 20were handed to people outside Fulham Broadway tube station during rush-hour. People were only given the form if they said they had children, and were asked to fill it in on their way home from work or when they got back, and were given an sae. This method was chosen for reasons of personal safety as opposed to going round door to door. If the respondent answered yes to all questions then they were said to have suffered a prolonged period of domestic violence. In order to investigate the effects of domestic violence on adolescents questionnaire was devised for teenagers (see Appendix 1) and 20 were handed out at a youth centre in Hammersmith to be filled out anonymously. The forms were then collected at the end of the day. The second section of primary research was designed to be more specific. It was decided to approach an association specifically setup for women who have suffered domestic violence, which is actively involved in policy work in the UK. The chairwoman was approached and asked whether she could arrange for a sample preferably those with family in a black community who would consider completing questionnaire for a research study on domestic violence and its effects on young people and children. The chairwoman gave the researcher four names and email addresses of people who were willing to be contacted. However, the respondents and the association were to remain anonymous for reasons of confidentiality and security. The respondents used pseudonyms for their responses. As the sample was small, yet relevant, it was decided to use a more lengthy questionnaire, and interview the four subjects in more depth about their experience. Aside from the emotional effects, questions were designed to explore how domestic violence can be detrimental to learning and health. (see Appendix 2). Organisations and Government Policy There are many voluntary organisations such as Shelter, which provide counselling and places of refuge for women and children suffering domestic violence. Beneath are listed other services in the Hammersmith and Fulham area: Refuge provides a Freephone 24-hour National Domestic Violence Helpline Community efforts, such as the Peace Week. The protection from Harassment Act 1997 Prosecutions from the Criminal Justice Act 1998 where the victim need not appear in court, but her statement used instead. Developing police strategy for collecting evidence at the scene (Home Office 2000). What happens to children in cases of Domestic Violence? The aftermath of domestic problems can be as damaging as the incidents or episodes themselves. Children can be present during an arrest of apparent, witness a parent breaking restraining orders and their reactions to court decisions. In these situations children can be used as pawns or in worst cases even be taken as hostages. (Devote and Smith, 2002 ). In a qualitative study on the effects of domestic violence on children, McGees (2000) study, along with other research, revealed that: Children do not have to experience physical abuse to experience long-term negative effects of living where extreme controlling behaviour and abuse are the norm. In order to protect themselves, children may take the fathers side in an argument, and may themselves be abusive to their mother (Kelly 1996). Children regularly experience a sense of total powerlessness, wishing they could assist their mother, which may produce harm to their long-term emotional wellbeing. This may later cause revenge fantasies, but at the time often leads them to have an overpowering need to stay in the room. (Shipway 2004: 116). It is not unusual for the child or young person to blame themselves for what is happening to their mother, particularly as the partner may have used their behaviour as a reason for losing his temper. (Ibid). Young people sometimes fear social services will remove them from the home if it is known violence and abuse exists. Gaudi (2001:27) provided evidence confirming that two-thirds of the residents in refuges are children. However, this does not account for the hundreds who are afraid to report violence. The threat of leaving their family home, however unstable, is often not well received by children, and many would rather put up with domestic violence than remove themselves from it. Domestic Violence in the Black community Domestic violence in the black community has been recognised as being less likely to be reported mainly because women and young people do not wish to threaten the stability of their position within their community. Women from African Caribbean communities are less likely to report their experiences and therefore they experience prolonged abuse over a long, or sometimes indeterminate, time frame. One of the critical debates concerning domestic violence is the idea of getting used to a way of being treated and thus for it to become the norm within family life. An article written by a survivor of domestic violence said of her early years in Jamaica: in my experience it was commonplace to hear of or even witness women/men being beaten by their spouses or partners in public view. (Unknown author.https://www.2as1.net/articles/article.asp?id=49.). She comments of violence in the UK, saying that particularly within the Black community, the fighting may not overspill onto the streets but it does occur, behind closed doors. Black communities in London are well established and people living within them rely on the social structure of their area. The idea of leaving the area to live in a refuge where they might not understand English speaking people so well is an intimidating prospect for many. Thus, some women who do not speak English might delay seeking help, finding the language a barrier between them and British speaking organisations. Interpreters can be used, but involving a third partying a womans private life can be an off-putting idea. Furthermore, religious or cultural beliefs might forbid divorce, and religious community leaders mostly being men, only some speak out about domestic violence. In the case of migrant women and children who suffer domestic abuse there often is the threat of not being able to stay in the UK if they separate from their partner. An even greater threat is that the partner might abduct the children and take them abroad. (GreenwichMulti-Agency Domestic Violence Forum. 2003). One of the most powerful psychological effects of domestic violence, physical or verbal, is the victims distorted perspective of their abuser. Often women will make excuses for the person who attacks them blaming it on themselves or on drink or drugs or other stresses within their relationship. This comes with an inability to prioritise their personal safety and wellbeing, and that of their children, believing that the emotional attachment between the family members might be enough to overcome the presence of violence. Consequently, the effects of the mothers decision to remain within the abusive relationship means that the child remains continually at risk from psychological and physical hurt. The effects of exposure to violence in the home are extensive and not always immediately evident. For the individual exposure to domestic violence can precipitate personality disorders, addictive disorders, substance abuse, and even physical disorders. And as studies have shown, many violent individuals have themselves been victims of domestic violence and abuse, unable to break out of the cycle. Children and adolescents with violent parent(s) are without the presence of a mentor on which to model their behaviour. This can lead to further social problems such as an inability to integrate with peers. A young person who has experienced the insecurity of a violent home life might seek security in other forms such as substance abuse, and gangs and gang violence. Statistics The Home Office survey 2004 reported on a questionnaire used by the2001 British Crime Survey. It asked a nationally representative sample of 22,463 women and men aged between 16 and 59 whether they had been subject to domestic violence during their lifetime and during the preceding year. For relevance to this dissertation the following graphs were selected from the survey: Source: Home Office Survey 2004: 12. The survey surmised that since the age of 16 45% of women and 26%of men were subject to domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. (Home Office 2004: 8). Of these 18.6% were subject to force, meaning pushing, shoving, or physical harm. The British Crime Survey estimated that 13% of women and 9% of men had been subject to domestic violence in the 12 months prior to interview. (p.8). Furthermore, 12.9 million incidents of domestic violence acts had occurred against women in that year. Violence against children In 90% of cases of domestic violence children are in the same room or the next room.(Hughes 1998) In 40% 60% of cases of domestic violence child abuse is also occurring ( Stark Flit craft 1998) The NCH study found 75% of mothers said their children had witnessed domestic violence, 33% had seen their mothers beaten up, 10%had witnessed sexual violence (NCH, 1994). (https://www.womens-aid.org.uk/statistics.php). Immediate effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Young People A report by the Department of Health concluded that: For many women and their families the effects of domestic violence will be catastrophic, the damage to their physical and psychological wellbeing may be deeply damaging, and on occasions fatal. (Department of Health [DoH] 2000: 12) Victimisation by a parent of a child or young person can lead to the individual becoming so controlled and inhibited that they are unable to make even the simplest decision or act without permission, responding with complete obedience to every order given and every rule imposed. Abuse can encumber every part of their life, leading in cases to suicide seeming like the only escape. Some people express their self-disgust and powerlessness through alcohol or drug abuse, or self-mutilation, exhibiting signs of severe depression and complete dependency on the abuser.(Shipway 2004: 1). Because of the variety of forms which domestic violence can take its difficult for research to cover all areas. For example, there can be negative effects from being an observer. Research by Fantuzzo and Mohr noted this and thus instead of using the term victim used exposure. This was used in the context of the experience of watching or hearing domestic violence; being directly involved; calling police; and the experience of the aftermath of scenes which might include seeing injuries or bruising on a parent and observing maternal depression. (Fantuzzo and Mohr 1999: 22). Work by Hester et al found that childrens responses differ among members of the same family who are witnessing or experiencing the same abuse. They also said that it is hard to discern the impacts of living with domestic violence on children, because some of the consequent behaviours also occur in children experiencing other forms of abuse and neglect. (Hester et al. 2000:44) The following is a list of negative effects taken from Shipway 2004: 117): Secrecy Confusion Fear Mistrustful Blaming themselves Nightmares In addition Hester et al. (2000:44) found that whilst some children have poor social skills others attain a high level of social skills development with an ability to negotiate difficult situations. Childs ability to cope with abuse should never be underestimated; neither should the childs attachment to the abusive parent which, for some, may continue to be strong. (Ibid). Childrens responses to witnessing domestic violence will depend on age, race, class, sex, stage of development, and the support of others.(Womens Aid). Children may feel angry at their mother or father for not protecting them, as well as blaming them for causing the violence. Others may be so concerned about their mothers distress that they keep private their own grief (Saunders, 1995. From Womens Aid). Long Term effects Research by Fantuzzo and Mohr concluded that children who live in violent households are at greater risk of being maladjusted. (Fantuzzoand Mohr 1999: 22.) Some of these problems include: Behaviour Modelling In very young children through to adolescent age, behaviour is often modelled on people who the individual spends significant time with. Piaget in his 1972 publication noted that childrens play behaviour involves modelling on those around them, and eventually to reproducing that behaviour at any given time or place . As children grow up the parent figure becomes a role-model and if an abusive relationship exists then this trust is taken away. In study conducted by American researchers on aggression and violence in adolescent boys, 15 interviewees were asked questions which sought to identify areas for improvement concerning intervention and prevention. Participants disclosed that their aggressive responses to provocation were frequently modelled on responses that they had seen exhibited bothers, particularly those observed among immediate and extended family members. For example, a respondent called Dan said the following about his father: He gets mad too quickly. Hell get aggravated and hell just explode and thats when the fights start. Well argue and then Ill get mad and tell him some stuff and then hell get mad and just start yelling and then like one of us will go after the other, and then were fighting so my mother will try to break it up or call the police. (Ballot et al 2002: 221). Not all interviewees connected their behaviour with their families, however, there were many family interactions which involved aggression and domestic violence. It is perhaps the impact of what children witness that remains with them and encourages them to learn negative behavioural responses more quickly. As Brian explained, When I was younger, I didnt have a very organized family at all, so I looked towards the people on the streets. Thats when it gets you in trouble. Social Integration The abused childs unstable, often dangerous, home environment is likely to limit the childs development of social skills, self-confidence, and experience of positive interactions (Herrenkohl etal., 1995). Taken from Cooper 1999: 10). Children who grow up in a violent, unpredictable family have a `world view in which potential threat is constantly present. The childs ability to play and integrate with others is severely impaired as they are, if you like, watching their back in case of attack. Play is an important medium of self-expression for the young child, especially during the preschool years when language is still developing. It is the way in which children explore the world around them and learn to recognise and understand objects and people. Because play is sensitive to environmental conditions, the childs physical and social environment will either support or limit his or her play opportunities. Unfortunately, when a child is exposed to a chronically violent, abusive, or neglectful home environment, his or her opportunities for play development and play experiences are severely disrupted. (Cooper 1999:10). The physically abused or neglected child is more likely to show delayed language, cognitive, and motor development, and as a consequence, delayed play skills (Ibid). Cooper suggests that the preschool child will internalise the experience of domestic violence, and may view himself or herself as the cause. As a result, the preschool child may act in destructive ways, such as deliberately destroying other childrens games or toys, in order to attract negative attention. (Ibid). A 1989 study by Fagot et al found physically abused preschool childrens free play with peers to be more disruptive, aggressive, and antisocial than the play of other, non-abused children. (Ibid). Fantuzzo found that aggressive play behaviour, and a lack of empathy with fellow children, is likely to further isolate and prevent the abused child from learning appropriate social skills (Davis Fantuzzo, 1989: 227-248). Structure Children living in a dysfunctional family unit where violence occurs will often experience a lack of structure and organisation to their daily lives. The study by Ballot et al found that the boys felt safe in the institution as they had a chance to lead orderly, less chaotic lives than the ones they experienced in their homes and on the streets. (Ballot et al 2002: 17). Every child will cope with exposure to domestic violence in their own unique way. Indeed, many children might at first not appear to have been adversely affected. It is only later, or in certain situations that their inner emotional state might be revealed. Indeed, although there is a varying number of possible negative health and social outcomes for children who have lived in an abusive home, not all children manifest these characteristics in their later life. The young mind can be resilient and adaptable: It is important to remember that some children remain perfectly well-adjusted despite living with abuse and that a majority survive within on clinical or normal levels of functioning. (Millender and Morley1994:4) Results from Primary Research Of the 20 questionnaires handed out to a random sample of respondents, who were asked only to fill out and return the form if they had children. 8 were returned. The results are set out below: 1. Have you ever been in a relationship with someone who has hit you, kicked you, slapped you, punched you, or threatened to hurt you? 2. CURRENTLY? 3. When you were pregnant did anyone ever physically hurt you? 4. Are you in a relationship with someone who yells at you, calls you names, or puts you down? 7 out of 8 women said they had been in a relationship where they were threatened or hurt 3 out of 8 women said they were currently in a violent relationship 6 women who said they had been abused while pregnant, which implies that their children could have been born into a domestically violent household. 6 out of 8 women said they were in an emotionally abusive relationship These statistics for the Fulham area are quite high. Nearly half of respondents said they had experienced prolonged domestic abuse. It would be useful to conduct a further study on another random sample to see if the two sets of results would correlate. Because under half the sample returned the questionnaires it cannot be said to be representative sample of the Fulham area. Nonetheless the findings do give a surprising insight into the lives of black women in London, showing that abuse, in any form, is a regular occurrence in some peoples lives. Furthermore, because these respondents had children its likely that their children have witnessed domestic violence. Future research might look into establishing a comparison study on 20 women who do not have children in an attempt to see whether more cases of abuse occur within relationships where children are present. Questionnaire on teenagers Of the 20 forms which were filled in 9 respondents said they had been involved in or witnessed cases of domestic violence in their lifetime. 1. Have you ever been involved in or witnessed scenes of domestic violence in your family? Was this age 1-5/6-14/15-present? Or all of the above? 2. Were these scenes between your parents/partners? Did they ever directly involve you? Yes: 4 No: 5 3. Were you ever physically hurt during these episodes? Yes: 3 No: 6 4. Were you verbally abused during these episodes? Yes: 9 No: 0 5. How did your experience affect your daily life: 1. Made you shy..2 2. Made you sad.9 3. Made you angry5 4. Made you aggressive towards others3 6. Do you believe your experience to have been detrimental to your ability to enjoy and participate in school? 1. Yes..3 2. No6 2 out of 9 respondents said they had witnessed or experienced domestic abuse throughout their lives. Just under half of respondents said that they were directly involved in scenes of domestic violence and all respondents said they were verbally abused. The highest percentage(100%) said they had felt sad, while just under half felt aggressive towards other people. Interviews The four cases of domestic violence all revealed the problem of domestic violence to be one associated with isolation and taking place within the privacy of the home. All respondents admitted that they believed domestic violence to have negatively affected their children. Particularly poignant were the accounts of children becoming withdrawn, another aggressive, and another blaming her mother. All these findings are consistent with the secondary research presented in the first section of this dissertation. The interviews provided a surprisingly good response. Some people might be reluctant to admit to the presence of violence in their domestic life, especially if it involves their children, in fear of admitting that they are (directly, or indirectly) causing their child to be unhappy. However, all four respondents answered openly and honestly about their experiences. Conclusion This dissertation has looked into a cross section of the population in the Hammersmith and Fulham area of London. Teenagers and women who were known to have experienced abuse were asked questions about their experiences and both reported feelings of sadness and aggression. Random sample of women with children also revealed that nearly half of the population had experienced a domestic violence act of some kind in their lives. The findings were consistent with the secondary research, such as the study by Piaget 1972, and Cooper 1999, both of which found that young children had difficulty in play activities and social integration, both at pre-school and primary level. The study by Ballonet al on aggressive teenagers also correlated with the responses from the questionnaires handed out at the youth centre. It is not possible to say that there are more domestic violence cases in black communities or that they are caused by demographic and stress factors. A study by Richardson et al on the prevalence of domestic violence against women looked for a correlation between demographic factors and domestic violence. They concluded that black women were least likely to have ever experienced domestic violence compared to their white female counterparts.(Richardson et al 2002:274). The interview with the British mother found that the violence she had experienced was mostly verbal and did not involve physical force directed at her. Out of the four women she was the only one still tube with her husband with whom she had fought with. This is not consistent with the secondary research presented at the beginning which suggested that more black women stayed with their spouses in fear of what might happen if they left. Future research might explore the marital status of black women in the Hammersmith and Fulham area and the stability of the family unit. Interviews with more than one member of a family might also be useful in order to gain a different perspective on the same incidents. To conclude, domestic violence appears to have a negative impact on children and young people. Initial responses might be guilt, fear, sleeplessness and a desire to protect their mother. In pre-schoolchildren the learning ability and playfulness is often damaged by the experience of domestic violence. In children of all ages research has shown that behaviour is modelled on what they see around them, and this can lead to anti-social behaviour to peers and strangers. Longer-term effects include an inability to trust other people, withdrawing from social situations, depression, and in worse cases aggression on the streets, and drug and alcohol abuse.
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Jazz was originated by African Americans it is a genre of music that uses mainly brass, woodwind, and piano. It became popular in the 20th century during the Harlem Renaissance where many famous jazz artists arose. Louis Armstrong was one of the most well known jazz artist of his time. Louis Armstrong was a trumpeter, bandleader, singer, soloist, film star, and comedian. He was considered one of the most influential artists in jazz history. Louis Armstrong was a famous musician during the Harlem renaissance because of his skills with a trumpet. Louis Armstrong was born on August 4, 1901 in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was raised by Mary Albert his mother and not so much by William Armstrong his father. He had a hard childhood, his father was a factory worker who left right after he was born his mother who turned to prostitution most of the time for money would leave him behind with his grandmother. Louis Armstrong was forced to leave school in the 5th grade to start working. 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